built right into the database layer

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- X
^{2}statistics and tests for goodness of fit to a distribution and for independence of outcomes - F-statistic and F-test to compare the variance of two populations
- One & two sample (paired & unpaired) Student's T test statistics & results
- Z-test statistic & result comparing predicted with observed means

Fisher transformation and its inverse- Complete & incomplete beta functions, inverses, complements & beta derivative
- Gamma function, lower & upper incomplete gamma functions & inverses, log-gamma, gamma ratios, digamma, gamma derivative
- Average absolute deviation, sum of squared deviations

Combinations and permutations- Confidence intervals based on Normal and Student's T distributions
- Pearson product moment correlation coefficient & its square
- Sample and population co-variance of two data sets
- Geometric mean, harmonic mean, quadratic mean, truncated mean & weighted power mean
- Weighted averages, weighted sample & population variances & standard deviations
- Linear & exponential extrapolations for forecasting
- Linear regression to determine slope and intercept
- Median & quartiles (inclusive & exclusive), interquartile range, interquartile mean, tri-mean
- Percentile & percentile rank, inclusive & exclusive

Average & absolute rank

Skewness, kurtosis and kurtosis excess

Range, mid-range, n^{th}largest, n^{th}smallest

Mode for continuous or discrete data

Cumulative product- Normalization of values based on supplied mean and standard deviation
- Standard error of predicted values based on linear regression

Riemann zeta function for a complex number- All functions implemented as straightforward scalar or aggregate functions that can be used inline in queries

Multi-input aggregate functions, even in SQL2005